Tibetan Buddhism -- sometimes referred to as Vajrayana, Lamaism, or Bon (its pre-Buddhist predecessor) -- is unique among schools for melding church and state. But this is nothing for the tradition to be proud of having done.
Hitler, who is said to have been Catholic, sent emissaries to welcome this unholy union in search of "Aryan" invading forbears or offspring from when asuras ruled the peripatetic Himalayan lands.
During 1252, Mongolian Emperor Kublai Khan granted an audience to Drogön Chögyal Phagpa and Karma Pakshi, the second Karmapa of Tibet who, however, sought the patronage of Möngke Khan.
Before his death in 1283, Karma Pakshi wrote a will to protect the established interests of his sect by advising his disciples to locate a boy to inherit the black hat.
- His instructions were based on the premise that the Dharma Buddhism expresses is timeless so in a sense "eternal." In Mahayana Buddhism, of which Vajrayana is a school, the Buddha is more Brhaman than a historical figure. He sends out emanations to complete the missions he has initiated, just as in the Vedic Brahmanism the historical Buddha was born into and worked so hard to set straight. But the views of the brahmin priests won out in India and gave rise to Brahmanism in a new form: "Mahayana" Buddhism. And it is this form of Buddhism that met and melded with the shamanistic/animistic Bon spirituality of the high Himalayas: Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, Ladakh, Sikkim, and Himalchal Pradesh (a modern northern Indian state).
During the Ming Dynasty, Emperor Yongle bestowed the title "Great Treasure Prince of Dharma," the first of the three Princes of Dharma, upon the Black-Hat Karmapa. Various sects of Tibetan Buddhism responded to the teacher-reincarnation system by creating similar lineages.
Unification of the Empire
In the 1630s, Tibet became entangled in power struggles between the rising Manchu and various Mongol and Oirat factions. (Rome has had similar problems with its colonies).
Ligden Khan of the Chakhar, retreating from the Manchu, set out to Tibet to destroy the Yellow Hat sect. He died on the way to Qinghai (Koko Nur) in 1634.
His vassal Tsogt Taij continued the fight, even having his own son, Arslan, killed after Arslan changed sides.
Tsogt Taij was defeated and killed by Güshi Khan of the Khoshud in 1637, who would in turn become the overlord of Tibet and act as a "Protector of the Yellow Church" (Rene Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes, New Brunswick 1970, p. 522).
Güshi helped the 5th Dalai Lama to establish himself as the highest political and spiritual authority in Tibet and destroyed any potential rivals (just like a European pope). The time of the 5th Dalai Lama was, however, also believed to be a period of rich cultural development.
His death was kept secret for 15 years by the regent [a ruler who awaits a king's return] Sanggye Gyatso. This was apparently done so that the great Potala Palace (think Himalayan Vatican) could be finished and to prevent Tibet's neighbors from taking advantage of an interregnum in the succession of the Dalai Lamas (Laird, 2006 pp. 181-182).
The 6th Dalai Lama, Tsangyang Gyatso, was not enthroned until 1697. He enjoyed a lifestyle that included drinking, the company of women, and writing love songs (Karenina Kollmar-Paulenz, Kleine Geschichte Tibets, München 2006, pp. 109-122) -- just like European popes, who from time to time, do not even feign to be "holy" men, just charismatic rulers who wield lots of power.
In 1705, Lobzang Khan of the Khoshud used the sixth Dalai Lama's escapades as excuse to take control of Tibet. The regent was murdered, and the Dalai Lama was sent to Beijing, China. He died on the way, near Koko Nur, ostensibly from illness. (It's corruption and controversy just like a Malachi Martin confessional or sanitized Dan Brown novels about the Vatican).
Lobzang Khan appointed a new Dalai Lama who, however, was not accepted by the Gelugpa school. Kelzang Gyatso was discovered near Koko Nur and became a rival candidate.
The Dzungars invaded Tibet in 1717, deposed, and killed Lobzang Khan's pretender to the position of Dalai Lama. This was widely approved.
- (The Vatican similarities become too obvious to continue mentioning, leaving one simply to wonder, Who came first, Catholic Popes or Tibetan Dalai Lamas? Someone is following someone else's example or, along with the practice of pederastry suggested in Unmistaken Child, is playing out the same human nature seen among child molesting priests, corrupt bishops, and worldly pontiffs)
Nicaea to East-West Schism (325–1054)
Wisdom Quarterly edit of Wikipedia entry
The Edict of Milan in 313 granted freedom to all religions in the Roman Empire (Davidson, Ivor, 2005, The Birth of the Church, Monarch, p. 341), beginning the Peace of the Church.
In 325, the First Council of Nicaea condemned Arianism, related to Arius not Aryan, declaring trinitarianism dogmatic.
And in its sixth canon it recognized the special role of the sees of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch (Canons of the Council of Nicaea).
Great defenders of the [Vedic Brahmin, now Hindu, concept of a] Trinitarian faith included the Popes, especially Pope Liberius, who was exiled to Berea by Constantius II for his Trinitarian faith (Pope Liberius, Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent, 24 May 2010), Damasus I, and several other bishops (J. Alves, Os Santos de Cada Dia, 10th ed., Paulinas, pp: 296, 696, 736).
In 380 Catholicism was declared the sole "state religion" of the Roman Empire (Theodosian Code XVI.i.2, Medieval Sourcebook: Banning of Other Religions by Paul Halsall, June 1997, Fordham University, retrieved 2007-09-04; Robert Wilken, 2004, "Christianity" in Hitchcock, Susan Tyler; Esposito, John. Geography of Religion. National Geographic Society, p. 286).
While the civil power in the East controlled the church and the bishop of Constantinople, the capital, wielded much power (Franco Gaeta; Pasquale Villani, Corso di Storia, per le scuole medie superiori. Milão. Editora Principato, 1986), in the West the bishops of Rome were able to consolidate the influence and power they already possessed (Ibid.)
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, barbarian tribes were converted to Arian Christianity or Catholicism (Jacques Le Goff, 2000, Medieval Civilization. Barnes & Noble, p. 14, 21); Clovis I, king of the Franks, was the first important barbarian ruler to convert to Catholicism rather than Arianism, allying himself with the papacy.
Other tribes, such as the Visigoths, later abandoned Arianism in favor of Catholicism (Ibid.) More