|Los Angeles as viewed from Kenneth Hahn State Rec Area, Jan. 3, 2010 (BDS2006)|
|The flag of Los Angeles (Mysid)|
- *Tovanger: Mark Frank Acuna. A Journey to Tovanger (A Journey to the World), a paper presented as part of the “Natural History of Urban Southern California: Lectures and Excursions” Series, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden (Claremont, California), Spring 1999 (Photocopy of author’s typescript in Special Collections, Honnold/Mudd Library at the Claremont Colleges).
- 1: Kuruvugna: A Place Where We Are in the Sun: The Bulletin of the Gabrielino/Tongva Springs Foundation. Winter Issue, 2005.
|Tovanger (the "Tongva World") today|
- **[Territory: Tovanger like Los Angeles County extended out to the Channel Islands in the west (San Nicolas), the Angeles National Forest and Malibu Beach, where the neighboring Chumash and Tataviam Nations begin and extend into modern Ventura County, in the north, San Bernardino to the east, and Orange County, land of the Acjachemen (Juaneño) to the south].
|Tovanger: aerial photo of Los Angeles Basin bordered by the San Gabriel Mountains (TP)|
|Disney, Inc. fantasy: Pocahontas|
They were so important that it is possible that an additional mission, now mostly lost to history, was once erected in La Puente by rancher William Workman for use by his Tongva servants/employees (2).
- 2: This concept comes from a reading of the 1855 Public Survey Map of the Workman Ranchero from the files of the Workman and Temple Family Homestead Museum Archives. On this map there is a clear notation of a mission on the grounds, yet no mission is in the records. Collections Manager Paul R. Spitzzeri considers it to be either the notation of a planned mission never built or the mistake of a surveyor who considered the Workman Family Chapel as part of the mission property.
- native life and culture before contact with Europeans
- changes encountered during the period of the Spanish Missions
- and the period following the secularization of the missions when those native peoples who had survived found employment on what became the Workman/Rowl and Rancho.
For most information about the Tongva, previous historians have relied heavily on the writings of two white men: More