The oldest written source about these underground complexes is the Anabasis by Xenophon (circa 431-355 BCE). He wrote that the people living in Anatolia dug their houses underground, living well in accommodations large enough for the family, domesticated animals, and supplies of stored food.
Alternatively, these underground Turkish cities were believed to have been constructed around 1,400 BCE by the Hittites. This is confirmed by archaeological finds, but the exact date remains unknown.
- Derinkuyu (Cappadocian Greek Μαλακοπή) is an ancient multi-level underground city in the Derinkuyu district in Nevşehir Province, Turkey. It extends to a depth of approximately 200 feet (60 meters), is large enough to have sheltered as many as 20,000 people together with their livestock and food stores. It is the largest excavated underground city in Turkey and is one of several underground complexes found across Cappadocia. It was opened to visitors in 1969 and about half of the underground city is currently accessible to tourists. More
It is possible that the underground rooms were used as shelters during the attacks of 1,200 BCE, when the Hittite Empire was destroyed by invaders from Thrace.
Hand Carved Longyou Caves Mystery