Wednesday, October 16, 2019

A Land So Strange: Epic American Journey

Grand Canyon-like coast near Morocco, Spain's Canary Islands, Africa, Timanfaya (bing.com)
.
A Land So Strange: The Epic Journey of Cabeza de Vaca
This is the extraordinary TRUE story of a shipwrecked Spaniard (Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca) who walked across America in the 16th century

In 1527, a mission called the Narvaez Expedition set out from Spain, an imperial nation in Europe, to colonize Florida, a free land inhabited by Native Americans in what Europe called the "New World."

But the expedition went horribly wrong: It was delayed by a hurricane, knocked off course by a colossal error of navigation, and the mission quickly became a desperate journey for survival.

It started in Hispaniola, in St. Dominic (the "first city of the Americas"). Of the 300 men who had embarked in Spain, only four survived -- three Catholic Spaniards and an African slave from Spain's neighbor North Africa.

This tiny band endured a horrific march through Florida, a harrowing raft passage across the Louisiana coast, and years of enslavement in the American Southwest.

They journeyed for almost 10 years in search of the Pacific Ocean that would guide them home, seeing lands, peoples, plants, and animals no European had seen before.

In this enthralling tale of four castaways wandering in terra incognita, "unknown land," author Andrés Reséndez brings to life the vast and dynamic world of North America -- years before European settlers would transform it forever. More

Columbus begins Europe's imperial adventure
An Inglorious Columbus (John Vanderlyn)
Prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, the Native American Taíno populated the island, which they called Quisqueya ("Mother of All Lands") and Ayiti (the "Land of the High Mountains"). Columbus later renamed it Hispaniola (La Española, "the Spanish land"), including the territory of today's Haiti. At the time, the island's territory consisted of five chiefdoms...ruled by Taino Indian chiefs (caciques). Dating from 1493, when the Spanish invaded and settled on the island, and officially from August 5, 1498, Santo Domingo became the oldest European city in the Americas. Columbus' little brother and fellow rapist and slave driver Bartholomew founded the settlement and named it La Nueva Isabela ("The New Isabella"), after an earlier settlement named after Queen Isabella I of Spain. In 1495 it was renamed "Santo Domingo," in honor of Roman Catholic Saint Dominic. The city came to be known as the "Gateway to the Caribbean" and the chief town in Hispaniola from then on. Expeditions which led to Ponce de León's colonization of Puerto Rico, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar's colonization of Hernando Cortes' conquest of Mexico (or Tenochtitlan), and Vasco Núñez de Balboa's sighting of the Pacific Ocean were all launched from Santo Domingo. More

Post-invasion American identity issues
Texas-New Mexico, 1800-1850
"Hispanics" (European whites from Spain), Native Americans (people of color from the Americas), and Anglos (Europeans) made agonizing and crucial identity decisions in the Southwest region during the first half of the 19th century. The Mexican government [a legacy of Spanish invasion] sought to bring its [Native] frontier inhabitants into the national fold. They did so by relying on administrative and patronage linkages. But Mexico's northern frontier gravitated toward the expanding American economy. Author Andrés Reséndez explores how the diverse and fiercely independent peoples of Texas and New Mexico came to think of themselves. Were they members of one national community or another (Mexico or US) in the years leading up to the imperial Mexican-American War? More

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

4th Democratic Presidential Debate (video)

ABC News (live); Crystal Q., CC Liu, S. Auberon, Pfc. Sandoval, Sheldon S., Wisdom Quarterly


The 4th Democratic presidential debate
F--k all of these losers, especially Joe.
(ABC News, Oct. 15, 2019) Twelve candidates take the stage in Ohio tonight (abcn.ws/2BdyEzv) for yet another b-s-athon trying to jockey for position in a rigged process. Tune in before and after the debate for complete coverage of the fourth democratic debate featuring:
    1. Corrupt ex-VP Joe "BS" Biden
    2. Sen. Prof. Elizabeth "Pocahontas" Warren
    3. Grumpy Sen. Bernie "Oh My Heart" Sanders
    4. Gay South Bend Indiana Mayor Pete "Millennial" Buttigieg
    5. Sen. Kamala "Vicious Prosecutor" Harris
    6. Businessman Andrew "Free Money" Yang
    7. Sen. Cory "I Should Grimace Less" Booker
    8. Former Texas Rep. Beto "I'm Not Hispanic" O'Rourke
    9. Sen. Amy "The Right Loves Me" Klobuchar
    10. Billionaire Tom "I Paid To Be Here" Steyer
    11. Former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Julian "Smarty" Castro
    12. Hawaiian soldier Rep. Tulsi "Peacenik" Gabbard.



    Birth of Venus Tulsi
    PRELIMINARY RESULTS: Tulsi Gabbard, who nearly boycotted these bogus rigged by the DNC debates, as Bernie should have learned by what pro-Hillary party insiders did to him, "wins" with 40% of the vote. Liz makes a showing. Biden bores. Big losers are deplorable District Attorney Kamala with her off-putting attitude (where's spiritual Marianne "Course in Miracles" Williamson?), newcomer Tom, and lifeless and embarassing Beto.
      • 7:00 PM (EST) – Pre-Debate coverage begins
      • 8:00 PM – Around the Table with Beto O'Rourke
      • 8:30 PM – Around the Table with Sen. Cory Booker
      • 9:00 PM – Trail Mix
      • 9:30 PM – The Briefing Room
      • 10:00 PM – 538 Politics Podcast
      • 11:00 PM – Post-Debate Coverage

      "The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story"

      Andrés Reséndez (amazon.com, 4/18/17), Dhr. Seven, Xochitl, Crystal Q., Wisdom Quarterly

      The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America
      “Long-awaited and important...No other book before has so thoroughly related the broad history of Indian slavery in the Americas.”—San Francisco Chronicle

      “A necessary work...[The Other Slavery] will likely surprise you.”—NPR

      “One of the most profound contributions to North American history.”—Los Angeles Times

      Since the time of Columbus, Indian slavery was illegal in much of the American continent.

      Yet, as this myth-shattering book illuminates, it was practiced for centuries as an open secret.

      There was no abolitionist movement to protect the tens of thousands of Native Americans who were kidnapped and enslaved by the conquistadors.

      Author Andrés Reséndez builds the incisive case that it was mass slavery — more than epidemics — that decimated Indian populations across North America.

      A Strange Land (Andres Resendez)
      Through riveting new evidence, including testimonies of courageous Catholic priests, rapacious merchants, and American Indian captives, The Other Slavery reveals a key missing piece of American history.

      For over two centuries Americans have fought over, tried to abolish, and attempted to come to grips with the enslavement of African Americans [and Native blacks].

      It is time for the West to confront an entirely separate, equally devastating enslavement we have long actively failed to look at. More
      • “Beautifully written...A tour de force.”
      • Chronicle of Higher Education
      • National Book Award finalist
      • Winner of the Bancroft Prize

      Killing California's Indians: US Genocide

      Benjamin Madley (amazon.com); Xochitl, Dhr. Seven, Crystal Q. (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly
      An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873
      (The Lamar Series in Western History)
      This is the first full account of the genocide of California Indians, a mass ethnic cleansing sanctioned by the government of the United States.

      Between 1846 and 1873, California’s Indian population plunged from perhaps 150,000 or higher to 30,000.

      Author Benjamin Madley is the first historian to uncover the full extent of the industrial scale slaughter, the involvement of state and federal officials, the U.S. taxpayer dollars that supported the violence, indigenous resistance, who did the killing, and why the killings ended.

      This deeply researched book is a comprehensive and chilling history of an American genocide.

      Madley describes pre-contact California and precursors to the genocide before explaining how the Gold Rush stirred vigilante violence against California Indians.

      He narrates the rise of a state-sanctioned killing machine and the broad societal, judicial, and political support for genocide. Many participated: vigilantes, volunteer state militiamen, U.S. Army soldiers, U.S. congressmen, California governors, and others.

      State and federal governments spent at least $1,700,000 on campaigns against California Indians. Besides evaluating government officials’ responsibility, Madley considers why the slaughter constituted the legal definition of "genocide" and how other possible genocides in and beyond the Americas might be investigated using the methods presented in this groundbreaking book. More

      Monday, October 14, 2019

      What Europeans found in America (video)

      Daniel Bushell ("The Truth Seeker," RT); Xochitl, Dhr. Seven, Crystal Q., Wisdom Quarterly



      Holocaust (David Stannard)
      Daniel Bushell exposes the truth on "The Truth Seeker" show: What did Europeans (Spanish, British, French, German, Portuguese, etc.) find when they arrived in the future Canada and United States (North America), Mexico (Mesoamerica), Central, and South America?

      The British and Germans undertook "far and away the most massive genocide in the history of the world." It was an American Holocaust to get rid of the indigenous First Nations peoples, the American Indians, Native Americans. There is much published research on this, but we are not made aware of most of it.

      In Lies My Teachers Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbooks Got Wrong, Prof. James W. Loewen reveals the reality of what Europeans found in North America. The New World was beautiful, prosperous, clean, and advanced. The filthy "savages" were white cannibals, failed pilgrims who settled not at Plymouth Rock but in Jamestown, Virginia, the real first British colony.
      "People of Europe Rise Against Capitalism," Spain, worldwide demonstrations on economy

      Columbus? National Indigenous Peoples Day

      Newsy; Daniel Bushell (RT); Xochitl, Dhr. Seven, Crystal Quintero (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly


      Indigenous Peoples Day growing in popularity
      The idea started in Berkeley, California, in 1992. Now, it's caught on in cities around the country. Learn more about this story at newsy.com/63944. Find more videos like this at newsy.com. Follow Newsy at facebook.com/newsyvideos and twitter.com/newsyvideos.

      US History: "Lies My Teacher Told Me"

      James W. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me; Dhr. Seven, Xochitl (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly

      “Every teacher, every student of history, every [American] citizen should read this book. It is both a refreshing antidote to what has passed for history in our educational system and a one-volume education in itself.” —Howard Zinn

      This is a new edition of the national bestseller and American Book Award winner with a new preface by the author.

      Since its first publication in 1995, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong has become one of the most important — and successful — history books of our time.

      Having sold nearly 2,000,000 copies, the book also won an American Book Award and the Oliver Cromwell Cox Award for Distinguished Anti-Racist Scholarship and was heralded on the front page of the New York Times.

      For this new edition Prof. James Loewen has added a new preface that shows how inadequate history courses in high school help produce adult Americans who think Trump can solve their problems and calls out academic historians for abandoning the concept of truth in a misguided effort to be “objective.”

      Young Readers' Edition (R. Stefoff, Loewen)
      What started out as a survey of the 12 leading American history textbooks has ended up being what the San Francisco Chronicle calls “an extremely convincing plea for truth in education.”

      In Lies My Teacher Told Me, Prof. Loewen brings history alive in all its complexity and ambiguity.

      Beginning with pre-Columbian history and ranging over characters and events as diverse as Reconstruction, Helen Keller, the first Thanksgiving, the My Lai massacre by mass murderers/American soldiers during the Vietnam War, 9/11, and the Iraq War, Prof. Loewen offers an eye-opening critique of existing textbooks.

      He also provides a wonderful retelling of American history as it should — and could — be taught to American students. More

      "American Holocaust": European Conquest

      David E. Stannard (amazon.com); Xochitl, Dhr. Seven (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly

      American Holocaust (David E. Stannard)
      For four hundred years from Spain's assaults on the Arawak people of Hispaniola in the 1490s to the U.S. Army's massacre of Sioux natives at Wounded Knee in the 1890s [to the treatment of Native Americans all over the U.S. today], the indigenous inhabitants of North and South America are enduring a firestorm of European violence.

      During these centuries the native population of the western hemisphere has declined by as many as 100 million people. Indeed, as author and historian David E. Stannard argues in this stunning book, the European and white-American destruction of the native peoples of the Americas is the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world.

      Stannard begins with a portrait of the enormous richness and diversity of life in the Americas prior to Columbus's fateful voyage in 1492. He then follows the path of genocide from the Indies to Mexico and Central and South America, then north to Florida, Virginia, and New England, and finally out across the Great Plains and Southwest to California and the North Pacific Coast.

      Stannard reveals that wherever Europeans and/or white-Americans went, they visited imported plagues and barbarous atrocities on the native peoples, typically resulting in the annihilation of 95 percent of their populations.

      What kind of people, he asks, do such horrendous things to others? His highly provocative answer: Christians do such horrendous things to others.

      Digging deeply into ancient European and Christian attitudes toward sex, race, and war, he finds the cultural ground well prepared by the end of the Middle Ages for the centuries-long genocide campaign by Europeans and their descendants.

      They have launched it in places [like the US, Canada, Mexico, Australia, and Israel] and continue to wage it against the New World's original inhabitants throughout the Americas.

      Advancing a thesis that is sure to create much controversy, Stannard contends that the perpetrators of the American Holocaust drew on the same ideological wellspring as did the later architects of the Nazi Holocaust. More

      Burn, baby, don't burn! CA fires (video)

      ABC News; Amber Larson and Dhr. Seven, Wisdom Quarterly; John D. Ireland (suttacentral.net)


      Multiple fires break out across California
      It's October 11, 2019 and ABC News’ Matt Gutman is reporting from wealthy (gas leaking) Porter Ranch, California, in the world's most famous suburban Valley, where fast-moving wildfires are shutting down highways and destroying homes.More: abcn.ws/2VzKUUv


      SUTRA: Three Fires
      Amber Larson, Dhr. Seven (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly, from Itivuttaka: "The Buddha’s Sayings," The Book of the Threes (93) based on John D. Ireland translation (suttacentral.net)
      Earliest depictions of the Buddha: Gandhara
      [This can't be what the Buddha meant. There's a worse fire a'brewing. But let's ignore that because, look, my house is on fire! OMG, everything's burning, the ALL is aflame! Why are we surprised? This is the Sensual Sphere or Kama Loka, the realm of the senses and sex, the sunny South Land. Welcome to California; now go home. No fornication allowed; there's already a wild fire. Let us now give ear to the Enlightened One.]

      "Fires"
      This was said by the Teacher (the Buddha)… “Meditators, there are three fires. What three? There is the [scalding] fire of lust, the [smoldering] fire of hate, and the [smoky] fire of delusion. Meditators, these are the three fires.”

      The fire of lust burns the sensual
      Infatuated with sense pleasure
      The fire of hate burns the malevolent
      Who harm and kill living beings

      The fire of delusion burns the bewildered
      Ignorant of the ennobling (enlightening) Dharma
      Being unaware of these three fires
      Humans delight in continued becoming

      Ensnared by Māra's [four] bonds
      They swell the ranks of infernal realms
      Rebirth in the animal sphere
      Titan-demons the realm of [hungry] ghosts

      But those engaged in practicing
      The Awakened Teachings day and night
      Ever perceiving this body’s foul aspects
      Soon extinguish the fire of lust

      The best of humans by loving-kindness
      Cool the fire of hate
      And they put out the fire of delusion
      By wisdom that leads to [direct] penetration

      Having extinguished these fires
      Unwearied night and day
      The wise ones attain nirvana
      And thereby overcome all suffering
        
      Noble (enlightened) seers masters of knowledge
      Wise ones of perfected understanding
      By directly knowing the end of rebirth
      Come no more to any renewal of becoming

      Sunday, October 13, 2019

      Indigenous Peoples Day, Los Angeles

      Facebook.com/events...; Xochitl, Dhr. Seven, Crystal Quintero (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly
      How "Los Angeles" used to be, a Tongva/Kizh collection of peaceful villages (Kizh)
      .
      I [Mitch O'Farrell] am honored to announce the second year of our Indigenous Peoples Day celebration in the City of Los Angeles!

      A community celebration will be held on Sunday, Oct. 13, between the hours of 4:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., at Los Angeles City Hall and Grand Park at 200 N. Spring St., DTLA.

      The theme this year will focus on the "Past, Present, and Future," with a call to action for our state and federal lawmakers to replace Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples Day.

      Native American O'Farrell on the City Council
      “I look forward to continuing the movement to celebrate this momentous day for Native Americans, and especially for Angelenos,” said Councilmember O’Farrell, a member of the Wyandotte Nation.

      “I want to send a message to other municipalities across the country that replacing Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples Day is essential if we are to ever eliminate the false narrative that Christopher Columbus was a benign conqueror who discovered America.”

      “Indigenous Peoples Day is an opportunity for Los Angeles to celebrate the beauty and resilience of Indigenous peoples all over the world, as well as to recognize the first peoples of Los Angeles -- the Tongva, Tataviam, and Chumash Nations,” said Chrissie Castro, chair of the Los Angeles City County Native American Indian Commission.

      “We use this day to lift up the historic and current movement to protect our lands, water and peoples, from stopping the human rights abuses of Indigenous migrants, to standing up for sacred sites protections at Mauna Kea [a massive, snow-capped mountain in Hawaii]. Indigenous Peoples Day is everyday.”

      In addition to the Indigenous Peoples Day event that Councilmember O’Farrell’s office is hosting at City Hall, an Indigenous Pride event will take place on Sunday, Oct. 13, from 11:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m at the Autry Museum, 4700 Western Heritage Way, in Griffith Park.

      “Indigenous Pride LA is a proud partner of Councilmember Mitch O’Farrell and the Native American Indian Commission,” says Indigenous Pride LA Co-Chair Gabriela Leon. “Together we aim to bring visibility to Indigenous people in Los Angeles County.”

      Los Angeles’s first Indigenous Pride celebration was held on Oct. 7, 2018 at Barnsdall Park and celebrated Two-Spirit, Indigiqueer, and Indigenous lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, pansexual, Two-Spirit, and asexual people.

      The event recognizes the need to have a space for Indigenous people from all lands, waters, and nations to meet and celebrate their heritage, cultures, and identities.

      BACKGROUND: Led by Councilmember O’Farrell, members of the Los Angeles City Council established Indigenous Peoples Day in August of 2017 and celebrated the first event on Oct. 8, 2018.

      Nationwide, there has been a movement to replace Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples Day.

      The long list of cities that have adopted resolutions to declare the second Monday in October as Indigenous Peoples Day include San Francisco, Berkeley, Denver, Seattle, Anchorage, Portland (Oregon), Albuquerque, Minneapolis, and Santa Cruz.

      Since Los Angeles replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples Day, other large cities such as Detroit, Tulsa, and Long Beach followed. New Mexico, South Dakota, and New Hampshire are just a few states that also celebrate Indigenous Peoples Day.

      Yoga Sutra: Liberation from All Bonds

      K. Nizamis (accesstoinsight.org) and Ven. Thanissaro (translators), Yoga Sutra: "Bondage Discourse" (AN 4.10) edited by Dhr. Seven and Ellie Askew, Wisdom Quarterly, Oct. 11, 2019

      "Meditators, there are four bonds (yokes, snares, traps, nooses) [Note 1]. What four?

      1. The bond of sensuality (sensual craving) [2]
      2. the bond of becoming (rebirth) [3]
      3. the bond of (speculative) views [4]
      4. the bond of ignorance. [5]
        "What is the bond of sensual craving? Here a person fails to discern as it actually is the origination, passing away, allure, drawback, and escape from sensuality.

        "When one fails to discern these [the origination, passing away, allure, drawback, and escape] then — with regard to [pleasing] sensual objects — one is obsessed with sensual passion, sensual delight, sensual attraction, sensual infatuation, sensual thirst, sensual fever, sensual fascination, and sensual craving. This is the bond of sensuality.

        "How is one bound by becoming? Here a person fails to discern as it actually is the origination, passing away, allure, drawback, and escape from becoming [incessant rebirth]. When one fails to discern these then — with regard to states of becoming — one is obsessed with passion for becoming, delight in becoming, attraction to becoming, infatuation with becoming, thirst for becoming, fever for becoming, fascination with becoming, craving for becoming. These are the bonds of sensuality and becoming.

        "How is one bound to views? Here a person fails to discern as it actually is the origination, passing away, allure, drawback, and escape from views. When one fails to discern these then — with regard to views — one is obsessed with a passion for views, a delight in views, an attraction to views, an infatuation with views, a thirst for views, a fever for views, a fascination with views, and a craving for views. These are the bonds of sensuality, becoming, and views.

        "How is one bound to ignorance? Here a person fails to discern as it actually is the origination, passing away, allure, drawback, and escape from the six sense fields [the media of the five senses with mind as the sixth]. When one fails to discern as it actually is the origination, passing away, allure, drawback, and escape from the six sense fields then — with regard to ignorance concerning the six sense fields — one is obsessed with not knowing [6]. These are the bonds of sensuality, becoming, views, and ignorance.

        "Ensnared by harmful, unskillful states — defiling, leading to further becoming [rebirth inseparably associated with disappointment, lack of fulfillment, dissatisfaction, and suffering], unhappy, resulting in disappointment and suffering and future rebirth, aging, and death — one is said to be bound and unfree. These are the four bonds.
        • "Thus the bonds of sensual pleasure, becoming, views, and ignorance are bound up with harm (unskillful karma), unwholesome mental phenomena — defiling, leading to again-becoming (rebirth), painful, having suffering (disappointment) as fruit, and stretching forth to more rebirth, old age, and death — because of that, it is called ‘without peace or rest from bondage [7].’ These, meditators, are the four bonds."
        Liberation by wisdom
        "Now, there are in addition four releases (liberations, freedoms, unyokings) [8]. What four?
        1. Release from sensuality
        2. release from becoming
        3. release from views
        4. release from ignorance.
        "What is release from sensuality? Here a person discerns as it actually is the origination, passing away, allure, drawback, and escape from sensuality. When one discerns these then — with regard to sensual objects — one is no more obsessed with sensual passion, sensual delight, sensual attraction, sensual infatuation, sensual thirst, sensual fever, sensual fascination, or sensual craving. This is release from sensuality.

        "How is one released from becoming? Here a person discerns as it actually is the origination, passing away, allure, drawback, and escape from becoming. When one discerns these then — with regard to states of becoming — one is no more obsessed with passion for becoming, delight in becoming, attraction to becoming, infatuation with becoming, thirst for becoming, fever for becoming, fascination with becoming, or craving for becoming. This is release from sensuality and becoming.

        "How is one released from views? Here a person discerns as it actually is the origination, passing away, allure, drawback, and escape from views. When one discerns these then — with regard to views — one is no more obsessed with passion for views, delight in views, attraction to views, infatuation with views, thirst for views, fever for views, fascination with views, or craving for views. This is release from sensuality, becoming, and views.

        "How is one released from ignorance? Here a person discerns as it actually is the origination, passing away, allure, drawback, and escape from the six sense fields. When one discerns them then — with regard to ignorance concerning the six sense fields — one is no more obsessed with not knowing. This is release from sensuality, becoming, views, and ignorance.

        "Free of harmful, unskillful mental states — defiling, leading to further becoming, unhappy, resulting in disappointment and suffering and in future rebirth, aging, and death — one is said to now be free from all bonds [9]. These are the four releases."

        Snared by the trap of sensual craving
        and the bond of becoming,
        snared by the trap of views,
        enveloped by ignorance,
        beings continue to wander on [10],
        cycling through rebirths
        onward toward death.

        But those who see through sensual craving
        and the trap of becoming (rebirth)
        who cast off the bond of views
        grow dispassionate
        toward ignorance,
        now free of all bonds,
        they — the traps abandoned —
        are sages free and awake indeed.

        ALTERNATIVELY:

        “Snared by the bond of sensual craving [for pleasure]
        and by the bond of repeated rebirth
        snared by the bond of [speculative] views
        and enveloped by ignorance,
        beings go around in the continued wandering on,
        destined to rebirth and death.

        “But those fully understanding sensual craving
        and in every way the snare of rebirth
        dispelling the lure of views
        now free of ignorance
        are released from all snares:
        They, indeed, are the wise ones
        having gone beyond all bonds.”

        NOTES
        1. Yogā (plural), from the root yuj, “to yoke, join, fasten, harness.” Yoga has many meanings, but its plainest senses are: “the act of yoking, attaching, joining, harnessing; a yoke or bond,” The English word “yoke” is a cognate of yoga. It is translated as “bond,” “bondage,” and “snare” to emphasize the negative connotations of the word in this sutra.
        2. Kāma-yoga, as in kama-sutra, snare of sensualtiy.
        3. Bhava-yoga: the noun form of the root bhū, “to become, to be,” is often translated as “becoming,” i.e., “coming into being or existence,” referring to the process of repeated birth and death, rebirth and redeath. Literally, however, the word may also be translated just as “becoming” (the dynamic, non-static form of being) since it is always altering and changing. In this sense, although it may sound strange and unfamiliar to us, it refers to the three major “states” or “modes” of “becoming” (living, existing, transforming) into which beings may be reborn: namely, kāma-bhava, or the mode of becoming characterized by sensual pleasure and craving; rūpa-bhava, the mode of becoming characterized by phenomenal form purified from the attachments and distortions of craving; and arūpa-bhava, the mode of becoming characterized by phenomenal formlessness (which may therefore be described as a kind of abstract, purely mental mode of becoming temporarily free or independent of sensual or fine-material form). Although these are traditionally associated with three distinct planes or realms of “rebirth,” they may also be understood as three distinct modes or levels of consciousness. These three modes or levels of consciousness are in fact necessarily always present in all sentient beings; however, beings -- which should probably be called “becomings” -- have a deep tendency, through their own karma (deeds) and their own consequent stage of mental development, to remain stuck and attached to a particular mode or level of consciousness.
        4. Diṭṭhi-yoga. Diṭṭhi (“view”) is the Pali language form of the equivalent Sanskrit noun dṛṣṭi, from the root dṛṣ, “to see.” It suggests a way of seeing or looking at things -- a “view, theory, doctrine, belief, opinion, speculation, ideology, outlook, or dogma.” The usual translation is “view” and more often “wrong view.” The early Buddha-Dharma (Teaching of the Buddha) makes a fundamental distinction between “knowing and seeing” things “as they actually are” (yathābhūtaṃ)” or right knowledge, and not knowing and not seeing things as they actually are, or “ignorance.” Compare, for example, the typical formula: Tassa evaṃ jānato evaṃ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati (“Of one knowing thus and seeing thus, one's mind [citta] is liberated from the influxes or intoxicants of sensuality, one's mind is liberated from the influxes or intoxicants of becoming, one's mind is liberated from the influxes or intoxicants of ignorance” (MN 7, Vatthūpama Sutra, PTS MN i.38). The translation “opinion or speculation” is useful here because it emphasizes that the “views” in question are not founded on reality nor are they in accord with it.
        5. Avijjā-yoga.
        6. Aññāṇaṃ: the negative particle a- + ñāṇa, “knowledge,” so not-knowing. Dictionaries translate this plainly as “ignorance, lack of knowledge.” The Commentary gives the following interpretation: “Through being opposed to knowledge, ignorance is characterised as aññāṇa” or Avijjā aññāṇa nti ñāṇa-paṭipakkha-bhāvena aññāṇa-saṅkhātā avijjā (PTS Mp iii.14). This would seem to suggest that the commentator took the term aññāṇa to imply a sense of “opposition” or “contrariness.”
        7. Ayogakkhema.
        8. Visaṃyogā.
        9. Yogakkhema.
        10. Saṃsāra.

        Saturday, October 12, 2019

        Kenyan runner shatters world record (video)

        RW; R.J. Johnson (@rickerthewriter, 10/12/19, iheart); CC Liu, Seth Auberon, Wisdom Quarterly

        Eliud Kipchoge is first person to run a marathon in under 2 hours
        Eliud Kipchoge ran a marathon in 1 hour, 59 minutes, 40 seconds, becoming the first person in the world to break two hours at a special event in Vienna, Saturday morning."

        The Kenyan national completed the feat at a special event set up for his attempt to break the two-hour mark in Vienna, Austria. He ended up completing the 26.2 mile course with an unofficial 1:59:40 time.

        "It has taken 65 years for a human being to make history in sport after Roger Bannister,” Kipchoge told NBC Sports (olympics.nbcsports.com). Bannister is the British man who was the first person to run a 4 minutes mile in 1954. "I can tell people that no human is limited. I expect more people all over the world to run under two hours after today."

        The event was held at the Prater, a park in Vienna that had fans of the running lining up around the six-mile circuit course. More

        The US general told us, "War is a Racket"



        War Is a Racket is a short book by retired U.S. Marine Corps Major General Smedley D. Butler, a two-time Medal of Honor recipient.

        It is based on his 34 years of military experience. The book discusses how business interests profit from war and perpetual conflict.

        Gen. Butler was appointed commanding officer of the Gendarmerie during the U.S. imperial occupation of Haiti, which lasted 19 years.
        • Smedley Darlington Butler (1881–1940) was a USMC major general, the highest rank at the time. He was the most decorated Marine in U.S. history when he passed away. During his 34-year career as a Marine, he participated in military actions in the Philippines, China, Central America, the Caribbean during the Banana Wars, and France in WW I. He later became an outspoken critic of U.S. wars and their consequences. He even exposed a businessmen's plan to overthrow the U.S. government. He received 16 medals, five for heroism, and was one of only 19 men to receive the Medal of Honor twice, one of three to be awarded both the Marine Corps Brevet Medal and the Medal of Honor, and the only Marine to be awarded the Brevet Medal and two Medals of Honor, all for separate actions. In 1933, in the Business Plot controversy, he told a congressional committee that a group of wealthy businessmen/industrialists were plotting a military coup to overthrow U.S. Pres. FDR.
        War? Shmore! We're making big money.
        After he retired in 1931, he did a nationwide tour with a speech titled "War is a Racket." It was so well received that he wrote it out, expanded it, and published it as a short book.

        Obey. Don't question authority!
        It was condensed in Reader's Digest, which boosted its surging popularity. In the introduction to the condensed version, Lowell Thomas praised it.

        War Is a Racket points to examples, mostly from WW I, that prove that industrialists are subsidized and enriched by publicly funded wars.

        Their operations generate massive profits for private corporations and companies that milk money from mass human suffering.

        These are the book's five short chapters:
        1. War is a racket
        2. Who makes the profits?
        3. Who pays the bills?
        4. How to smash this racket
        5. To hell with war


        It contains this SUMMARY:

        Some media gets in trouble telling us the truth.
        "War is a racket. It always has been. It is possibly the oldest, easily the most profitable, surely the most vicious. It is the only one international in scope. It is the only one in which the profits are reckoned in dollars and the losses in lives. A racket is best described, I believe, as something that is not what it seems to the majority of the people. Only a small 'inside' group knows what it is about. It is conducted for the benefit of the very few, at the expense of the very many. Out of war a few people make huge fortunes."

        [That's why we have wars, not the lies they us and repeat in the mainstream media.] More