Tuesday, December 31, 2019

New Year's Eve 2020 celebrations (video)

The Telegraph, Dec. 31, 2019 livestream; Editors Crystal Quintero, CC Liu, Wisdom Quarterly

New Year's Eve 2020 celebrations and fireworks from around the world
The USA (Amer. Samoa) is last to change.
Celebrations to mark the start of 2020 are being held around the world, starting with Kiribati (Xmas Island of the Line Islands) at 0900GMT, with New Zealand seeing in the new decade at 1100GMT.

The independent nation of Samoa, near Kiribati, changes over first, whereas American Samoa is last to enter the new year. (The two Samoas are only about 40 miles apart but on opposite sides of the International Date Line).

(TheSupa888) How it's done in Los Angeles, Universal City Walk 2014

Flying over Kiribati, South Pacific, 1956 (wiki)
1100GMT: Auckland, New Zealand
1300GMT: Sydney, Australia
1500GMT: Pyongyang, North Korea and Seoul, South Korea
1600GMT: Hong Kong, China, and Taiwan
1830GMT: Bangalore, India
1900GMT: Islamabad, Pakistan
2000GMT: Dubai, United Arab Emirates
2100GMT: Moscow, Russia
2200GMT: Athens, Greece; Cape Town, South Africa; Beirut, Lebanon
2300GMT: Paris, France
2300GMT: Berlin, Germany
2345GMT: Edinburgh, UK
0000GMT: London, UK
0200GMT: Rio, Brazil
0500GMT: New York, USA
0600GMT: Mexico City, Mexico

(Camila Costa) Disneyland fireworks, Orange County, Southern California

Headlines at Telegraph.co.uk and YouTube.com/TelegraphTV are websites of The Telegraph, the UK's best-selling quality daily newspaper providing news and analysis on UK and world events, business, sport, lifestyle, and culture. #happynewyear2020, #2020NewYear, #NewYearCelebrations

Monday, December 30, 2019

Science: Why do we have a BUTT? (audio)

Host Jad Abumrad, Heather Radke, Matt Kielty, spirit of Co-Host Robert Krulwich (radiolab.org, 12/27/19, WNYCstudios.org); Pat Macpherson, Crystal Quintero, CC Liu (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly

Yeah, this is my butt. Don't stare at it.
This is a story about your butt (gluteus maximus). It’s a story about how you got your butt, why you have your butt, and how your butt might be one of the most important and essential things for you being you -- and for all of us being human.

Reporters Heather Radke and Matt Kielty talk to two university research scientists who followed the butt from humanity's ancient beginnings, through millions of years of presumed evolution, all the way to today, out to a valley in Arizona, where our butts are put to the ultimate test.

This may be the cause of Darwin's evolution.
This episode was reported by Heather Radke and Matt Kielty and was produced by Matt Kielty, Rachael Cusick, and Simon Adler. Sound design and mixing by Jeremy Bloom. Fact-checking by Dorie Chevlen. Special thanks to Michelle Legro. Produced by WNYC Studios. To support RadioLab today, go to radiolab.org/donate.

Man against horse: Could you beat a horse in a race in the Arizona desert? (Matt Kielty)

World's largest unexcavated Buddhist temple

BBC; AJ English, 5/13; Dhr. Seven, Amber Larson, Pat Macpherson (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly

Race to save Afghanistan's Buddhist treasures: Mes Aynak ("Copper Well")
Archeologists just south of Kabul are racing to preserve one of the richest Buddhist historical sites ever found.

The ancient Buddhist monasteries and statues in Mes Aynak are under threat from a Chinese mining company that plans to raze the area to tap into the world's second largest known copper deposit.

Many fear the (US$) 3 billion dollar mining contract, Afghanistan's biggest commercial deal, will lead to the utter destruction of a [2,600-year] old heritage site [with indications the area has 5,000-year-old artifacts as well]. Al Jazeera's Jennifer Glasse reports from Mes Aynak.

The Scythians of Central Asia, Shakyians of Gandhara/Afghanistan, were the Buddha's extended family or clan and were very rich settled nomadic warriors along the Silk Road. They renounced, following the example of Prince Siddhartha, and became the monks of the mines (NatGeo).
(NatGeo) Archeologists go in search of Buddhist treasure -- more gold than found in King Tut's tomb and the world's largest Buddha statue in Bamiyan, Afghanistan (ancient Kapilavastu, Gandhara).
Al Jazeera English focuses on people and events that affect people's lives. It brings topics to light that often go underreported, listening to all sides of the story and giving a "voice to the voiceless." Reaching more than 270 million households in over 140 countries across the world, viewers trust Al Jazeera English to keep them informed, inspired, and entertained. Its impartial, fact-based reporting wins worldwide praise and respect. It is a unique brand of journalism that the world has come to rely on. AJ is reshaping global media and constantly working to strengthen its reputation as one of the world's most respected news and current affairs channels.

Sunday, December 29, 2019

Premarital SEX? (video)

Ven. K. Sri Dhammananda, Dr. Nikkyo Niwano, A Happy Married Life: A Buddhist Perspective (BPS, ATI); Flight of the Conchords; Ashley Wells, CC Liu, Pat Macpherson (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly
(Flight of the Conchords) From the TV show "Flight of the Conchords," Season 1, Ep. 4. Song: Min 2:30

Premarital Sex
Hey, stranger, know what time it is? - Dawn?
Premarital sex is much discussed in modern society. Many young people would like to know the opinion regarding this sensitive issue. Is it considered committing adultery, immoral, or...?

In the past, youths were not allowed by their parents to move around freely until they were married. And marriages were arranged by the parents. Of course, this caused unhappiness in some cases when parents chose partners on the basis of money, social status, family obligations, and so on.

Sex at Dawn: Polyamory or Monogamy?
But generally, the majority of parents tried very hard to choose a partner who would be acceptable to their children.

Today, young people are at the liberty to go out and try to find their own partners. They have a lot of freedom and independence in their lives. Some are too young and immature to see the difference between sexual attraction and compatibility, so the problem of premarital sex arises.

Too much laxity in matters concerning sex gives rise to social problems in modern society. Some societies do not express liberal attitudes towards unmarried mothers, unparented children, and divorcees, yet they are quite liberal about free sex.

As a result, young people are shamed and punished by a society that encourages free sex. They become social outcasts and suffer humiliation. Many young girls have become victims of their own freedom and have harmed their futures by violating age-old traditions that were valued in the East and West.

I dunno what to do with myself sometimes.
Premarital sex has come about as a result of social freedom. While Buddhism holds no strong views either for or against such action, it is thought that all Buddhists, particularly people in love and contemplating marriage, should adhere to the traditional concept that they maintain chastity until marriage.

The human mind/heart is wavering and ever-changing, with the result that any illicit action or indiscretion may cause harm to either party. It must be remembered that any sexual indulgence may be looked down upon by elders and guardians.

Sexual Misconduct
Let's. - Maybe we shouldn't?
Laypeople are advised in Buddhism to avoid sexual misconduct. That means, if one wants to experience sex, one must do so without creating any violence or using any kind of force, threat, or causing fear.

A decent sex life which respects the other partner is approved by this religion; Buddhism accepts the fact that it is a necessity for those who are not yet ready to renounce the worldly life.

According to Buddhism, those who are involved in extramarital sex with someone
  • who is already married
  • who is betrothed
  • who is under the protection of parents or guardians
are committing the seriously bad karma of "sexual misconduct," because there is a rupture of social norms, where a third party is being made to suffer as a result of the selfishness of one or the other partner.

Irresponsible Sexual Behavior

(Suburban Lawns) Su Tissue sings the timeless tune "Janitor." LYRICS: All action is reaction/ Expansion/ Contraction/ Man the manipulator// Underwater/ Does it matter?/ Antimatter/ Nuclear reactor/ Boom boom boom boom/ Who's your mother? Who's your father? I guess everything's a relative/ Who's your mother? Who's your father?/ I guess everyone's a relative// I'm a janitor/ Oh my janitors/ I'm a janitor/ Oh my janitors/ Oh my janitors/ I'm a janitor// All action is reaction/ Expansion/ Contraction/ Woman the manipulated/ Underwater/ Does it matter/ Antimatter/ New catheter lubricator/ Boom boom boom boom/ Who's your mother? Who's your father?/ I guess everything's irrelative/ Who's your mother? Who's your father?/ I guess everyone's irrelative/ I'm a janitor/ Oh my genitals/ I'm a janitor/ Oh my genitals/ Oh my genitals/ I'm a janitor/ [I mop this mess up].

It was just one of those things.
The Buddha also revealed the consequences that an elderly man would face if he married without considering the compatibility of age of the other party. According to the Buddha, irresponsible sexual behavior can become the cause of one's downfall in many aspects of life.

All countries have clearly defined laws concerning sexual abuse. Buddhism advocates that a person respect the laws of the country if the laws are made for the common good.

10. East and West
There's the yin and the yang, East and West.
The following are extracts from a book by the celebrated Japanese author Dr. Nikkyo Niwano. In The Richer Life, he deals with love and marriage from Eastern and Western points of view.

"In the West, marriage on the basis of romantic love has often been considered natural and sometimes ideal. In Asia, in recent years, the number of young people who abandon the traditional arranged marriage and select partners out of romantic consideration has been growing.

What about pornography and perversion?
"But in some cases, romantic marriages lead to separation and unhappiness within a short time, whereas the arranged marriage often produces a couple who live and work together in contentment and happiness.

"In spite of its emotional appeal, all romantic marriages cannot be called unqualified successes. Romantic love is like the bright flame of a wood-fire that leaps up and burns clear, but lasts only a short time. Love between [a husband] and wife burns quietly and slowly like the warming fire of burning coal.

"Of course, bright flaming love can — and ideally ought to — eventually become the calm, enduring fire of mature affection. But too often the flame of romantic love is quickly extinguished, leaving nothing but ashes, which are a poor foundation for a successful married life!"

Emotions on top of emotions, feelings on feelings
"Young people in love think so much of their emotions. They see themselves in the light of fleeting feelings in the moment. Everything they think and do is romantic.

"It has little bearing on the practical affairs of the life they must lead after marriage.

"If lovers are fortunate enough to have compatible personalities, to have sound and similar ideas about life, to share interests, to enjoy harmonious family relations on both sides, and to be financially secure even after the fiery passion has calmed down, they will still have a basis for a good life together.

"If they are not so blessed, they may face marital failure."

"When the time of dates, emotional pictures, dances, and parties has passed, the young married couples will have to live together, share meals, and reveal to each other their defects as well as their merits.... To live peacefully, it is necessary to realize the difference between romance and married love." More

Ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Afghanistan (video)

NHK via Svart3n, 9/09; Text: Amber Larson, Dhr. Seven, P. Macpherson (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly

Ancient Buddhist Kingdom in Afghanistan
World's largest Buddha statue, Bamiyan (NatGeo)
Bamiyan, Afghanistan is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. There's good reason for that. Although the CIA and Pakistan's intelligence service [(ISI) conspired to have the artificially-created "Taliban" blow it up and cause worldwide outrage, Bamiyan -- the Buddha's hometown according to Dr. Ranajit Pal (ranajitpal.com).

The Silk Road was a crossroads in Scythia
It was at least of the three seasonal capitals of the Scythians/Shakyians country or janapada in ancient Central Asia, the "Shakya Land" called Gandhara in those days, which later became Sakastan, the "Country of the Sakas" (Sakae, Scythians, Shakyians, etc.)

Afghanistan and neighboring Indo-Pakistan continue to yield up archeological treasures, including the world's largest Buddha statue, a 1,000 foot reclining Buddha thought to rest somewhere in the vicinity of the two massive standing Buddhas that were destroyed. There is a third standing Buddha in a nearby valley.

The future of the Bamiyan Buddhas
(NATO in Afghanistan, Save 1st, March 2nd, 2011) On the 10th anniversary of the CIA/ISI-Taliban's destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas, it will be decided whether to go ahead and reconstruct the famous statues with the fragments from the explosion that remain. The people of Bamiyan say it's important that the world never forget the dark days of the former (and current) regime in their province.

Saving Mes Aynak
And nearby Mes Aynak is the site of the world's oldest and largest Buddhism monastic complex, 4 square km site threatened to be destroyed by a Chinese mining concern more interested in copper, gold, and rare earth minerals than Buddhist cultural riches.

While Afghanistan was the farthest point from civilization until the British ruled in India and conducted the Great Game spying against the Russian Empire, the USA really brought this Silk Road transcultural area to world attention by carrying on the longest war in its history.

Afghanistan used to be "Russia's Vietnam," and now it's "America's Second Vietnam," an unwinnable quagmire and military disaster replete with human rights abuses, large-scale war crimes, and endless turmoil.

"Chahârbaiti Koshki" by artist Gada Mohammad, from the album Afghanistan: The Traditional Music of Herât licensed to YouTube by The Orchard Music (on behalf of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings / Auvidis-UNESCO).

Tibetan Healing Sounds: Cleansing (video)

Tibetan Healing Sounds
This soundtrack cleanses the aura and space around us and removes all negative energy. It is 30 minutes of powerful Tibetan healing meditation music: calming music, peaceful music, relaxing music.
Our goal is to help people relax and meditate, to give rest from a somatically tense way of life that leads to harmony with oneself and nature. Namaste.

Seven things to DO in meditation (video)

Ven. (Bhante) Vimalaramsi, 3/13/18; Dhr. Seven, Amber Larson (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly
We apologize for the somewhat arrogant, patriarchal, mansplaining appearance of this presentation, but maybe this American monk is onto something.
Metta Meditation instructions and the Six-Rs
Western Theravada Buddhist monk Ven. Vimalaramsi Mahathera from Missouri trained for many years in Burma (Myanmar). Here he defines "mindfulness" and describes his instructions for metta ("loving-kindness") using his practice of "The Six Rs" to eliminate the Five Hindrances to meditation.
  1. [Rest (up then get in a comfortable, restful position to start), our implicit addition].
  2. Recognize (any distractions, which means any time the meditation object is drifted away from).
  3. Release (it by not keeping attention on the distraction).
  4. Relax (the tightness caused by that distraction, which appears in the head/mind, due to craving [liking/disliking], this returns us to an open mind so that it's possible to return to the meditation object and continue observing it with a pure mind untainted by greed, hatred, or delusion).
  5. Re-smile (which is a way to bring up something wholesome, so smile with the face and the mind, as this leads to not trying so hard, smiling to recognize distractions and again to resume).
  6. Return (to the meditation object with a lighter mind as a result of smiling).
  7. Repeat (all of this to stay with the object).
"Mindfulness" (sati) is "remembering to observe how mind's attention moves from one thing to another." This definition works in all situations the word is used.

This is the first part of the Brahma Viharas (Four "Divine Abidings") practice or what Ven. Vimalaramsi calls TWIM ("Tranquil Wisdom Insight Meditation"). Retreats are available at the Dhamma Sukha Meditation Center (dhammasukha.org).

BOOK: The Path to Nibbana (Sanskrit Nirvana) has been published by David C. Johnson on these teachings (thepathtonibbana.com). This talk was recorded on Nov. 20, 2016 at the St. Francis Retreat Center in San Juan Bautista, California, delivered by the abbot of DSMC of Annapolis, Missouri.

Guided Loving-Kindness Meditation (video)

Guided Loving-Kindness (Metta) Meditation
Sometimes, if yer lucky, I laugh.
(How do I meditate?) This loving-kindness session is a guided meditation that runs 30 minutes, the prescribed time for a sitting. It is based on the metta instructions of Ven. Vimalaramsi. Metta is part of the Four Brahma Viharas found and described in the earliest Buddhists discourses. This meditation leads directly to a deep awakening of the heart and mind.
Spend the first 10-15 minutes radiating loving-kindness to yourself and the balance of the meditation radiating loving-kindness to a "spiritual friend," a kalyana-mitta (described in the audio).

Do this daily and if progress appears, when it appears, please contact Dhamma Sukha Meditation Center for further guidance at info@dhammasukha.org.
The book Guide to Tranquil Wisdom Insight Meditation is available (link) to accompany the complete guide, The Path to Nibbana, for the full explanation of the path to awakening using the Loving-kindness Path (Brahma Viharas) that leads to nirvana itself. library.dhammasukha.org/books

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Nikola Tesla was right (video)

Video Advice, 10/4/19; Nikola Tesla; Dr. Royal Rife; Dr. Clark; TEXT: Editors, Wisdom Quarterly
(Video Advice) Genius Nikola Tesla was right! "We've found the magic frequency" [to cure]!

We've found the magic frequency (This will revolutionize our future! Or it would except that the pharmaceutical companies known as "Big Pharma" and corruptible government officials and health industry regulators who accept financial "contributions," that is, bribes, will not allow any kind of technology to supersede allopathic drugs and enzyme-disrupting poisons, potions, and sorcery, in the biblical sense of potion-making, to take away their "bread and butter," that is, their means of making profits.

Frequencies are secret cures
There's too much money to be made fiddling with the health of living beings. So this technology was known about for almost a century with the Dr. Royal Raymond Rife Technology and books by Dr. Hulda Regehr Clark such as The Cure for All Diseases.

The government and AMA, FDA, ADA...stepped right in to stop it. The idea is simple: Learn the frequency of a harmful microbe, and put the opposing frequency into the body. The harmful, parasitic, protozoan "worms" will self-destruct, the body will go through a cleansing crisis, and the individual will be well and healed, cured of disease, easily.

Dr. Rife was destroyed by health care industry.
All physical ailments, however they begin -- psychologically, spiritually, by infection, or however else then attract these parasites. The parasites themselves alone are NOT the cause of disease, but rather it is a weakness -- an immunity issue -- that the parasites then exploit and take advantage of, stealing energy and resources from the host, making it sickly and hoping to only debilitate it not kill it, as that would end their parasitism.

FINE PRINT: Subliminal programs (bit.ly/2z7zyfG). Motivational clothes, be a dreamer (onlydreamersallowed.com). If you struggle and have a hard time, consider taking an online therapy session with partner BetterHelp (tryonlinetherapy.com/videoadvice). Special thanks to Anthony Holland for making this possible (Novobiotronics). Music licensed through Audiojungle. Footage licensed through Videoblocks and Videohive. Caption author (Portuguese) Paulo Salgado.

World's largest Buddhist temple: Borobudur

Mike; Dhr. Seven, Pat Macpherson, Maya Parisutra (eds.), Wisdom Quarterly Wikipedia edit
It's even more magnificent than the misty views from it toward the volcano (KBS TV)
Aerial drone view from KBS World TV show
Borobudur (Indonesian Candi Borobudur, "The City of Buddhas" or "High Buddhist Vihara") is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

It is the world's largest Buddhist temple (Guiness Book of World Records, Notes 1, 2, 3]. The temple complex consists of nine stacked platforms, six square and three circular, topped by a central dome or stupa (burial mound reliquary).

There are Buddhas inside hollow stupas.
It is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. The central dome is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues, each seated inside a perforated stupa [4] (which resembles a German time travel "bell" or Die Glocke).

Thought to be built in the 9th century, during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty, the temple design follows Javanese Buddhist architecture, which blends the Indonesian indigenous cult of ancestor worship and the Buddhist concept of attaining Nirvana [3].

Ascend the levels of Buddhist cosmology.
The temple demonstrates the influences of Gupta art that reflects India's influence on the region. Yet, there are enough indigenous scenes and elements incorporated to make Borobudur uniquely Indonesian [5, 6].

The monument is a shrine to the historical Buddha and a destination for Buddhist pilgrimage. The pilgrim-journey begins at the base of the monument and follows a path around it, ascending to the top through three levels symbolizing the three spheres in  Buddhist cosmology:
  1. Kāmadhātu (Sensual Sphere)
  2. Rūpadhātu (Fine Material Sphere)
  3. Arūpadhātu (Immaterial Sphere).
The massive monument guides pilgrims through an extensive system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels on the walls and the balustrades.

Borobudur has one of the largest and most complete ensembles of Buddhist reliefs in the world [3].

Wall relief depicting Prince Siddhartha becoming a wandering ascetic (G. Kartapranata)
Pyramidal Candi Borobudur, view from the northwest (Gunawan Kartapranata/wiki).
Evidence suggests -- but is not conclusive -- that Borobudur was constructed in the 9th century and subsequently abandoned following the 14th-century decline of Indian-influenced Indonesian Hindu kingdoms in Java and the Javanese people's conversion to Islam [7].

Worldwide knowledge of its existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, then the imperial British ruler of Java, who was advised of its location by native Indonesians [8].

Borobudur has since been preserved through several restorations. The largest restoration project was undertaken between 1975 and 1982 by the Indonesian government and UNESCO, followed by the monument's listing as a UNESCO World Heritage Site [3].
Mist rises from the jungle. The volcano looms in the distance. Borobudur is magnificent.
Arches of Kala, Borobudur stairs connect levels.
Borobudur is the largest Buddhist temple in the world. It ranks with Pagan (Bagan) in Burma (Myanmar) and Angkor Wat in Buddhist Cambodia as one of the great archeological sites of Southeast Asia.

Borobudur remains popular for pilgrimage, with remnant indigenous Buddhists in Indonesia celebrating Vesak Day at the monument.

Borobudur is Indonesia's single most visited tourist attraction [9, 10, 11], as is the case with many Buddhist temples, magnificent in scale and the mystery of their construction -- Mes Aynak, Afghanistan, the Ellora and Ajanta Caves of India, Leshan Mountain Buddha of China, Maitreya Buddha of Bhutan, the massive new Relics Tour Buddha in Kushinagar, India, Shwedagon Pagoda in Burma, and countless others around the world.

What about the name?
The bas relief collection rivals Angkor Wat
In the Indonesian language, ancient temples are referred to as candi. Thus, locals refer to "Borobudur Temple" as Candi Borobudur. The term candi also loosely describes ancient structures, for example gates and baths.

The origins of the name "Borobudur," however, are unclear [12]. In fact, the original names of most ancient Indonesian temples are no longer known [12].

Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles' History of Java
The name Borobudur was first written in Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles' book on Javan history, The History of Java (Harvard) [13]. Sir Raffles wrote about a monument called Borobudur, but there are no older documents suggesting the same name.

The only old Javanese manuscript that hints that the monument called Budur is a holy Buddhist sanctuary is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca, a Buddhist scholar of Majapahit court, in 1365 [14].

Sukarno took Nehru to Borobudur, June 1950
Most candi are named after a nearby village. So if it followed Javanese language conventions and was named after the nearby village of Bore, the monument would have been named "BudurBoro."

Sir Raffles thought that Budur might correspond to the modern Javanese word Buda ("ancient") — that is, "Ancient Boro." But Raffles also suggested that the name might derive from boro, meaning "great" or "honorable" and Budur for Buddha [12].

Yet another archeologist suggests the second component of the name (-Budur) comes from Javanese term bhudhara ("mountain") [15].

G.B. Hooijer painting (circa 1916) reconstructing scene of Borobudur in its heyday (wiki)
Another possible etymology by Dutch archeologist A.J. Bernet Kempers suggests that Borobudur is the corrupted, simplified local Javanese pronunciation of Biara Beduhur, which written in Sanskrit is Vihara Buddha Uhr.

Perforated, hollow stupas house Buddhas
The term Buddha-Uhr could mean "The City of Buddhas." Another possible term Beduhur is probably an Old Javanese word, still surviving in Balinese, that means "a high place," constructed from the stem word dhuhur or luhur ("high").

This suggests that Borobudur means "Vihara ("monastic complex") of the Buddha" located on a high place or on a hill [16].

The construction and inauguration of a sacred Buddhist building — possibly but not certainly any reference to Borobudur — was mentioned in two inscriptions... More

A small collection of photos: reliefs, architecture, carvings, statues (Wikipedia)
  1. ^ "Largest Buddhist temple." Guinness World Records. Guinness World Records. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  2. ^ Purnomo Siswoprasetjo (4 July 2012). "Guinness names Borobudur world's largest Buddha temple". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b c Soekmono (1976), page 35–36.
  4. ^ "Borobudur : A Wonder of Indonesia History". Indonesia Travel. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  5. ^ Le Huu Phuoc (April 2010). Buddhist Architecture. Grafikol. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  6. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Soekmono (1976), page 4.
  7. ^ Hary Gunarto, Preserving Borobudur's Narrative Walls of UNESCO Heritage, Ritsumeikan RCAPS Occasional Paper, [1] October 2007
  8. ^ Mark Elliott; et al. (November 2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd. pp. 211–215. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b c Mark P. Hampton (2005). "Heritage, Local Communities and Economic Development". Annals of Tourism Research. 32 (3): 735–759. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2004.10.010.
  10. ^ Jump up to: a b E. Sedyawati (1997). "Potential and Challenges of Tourism: Managing the National Cultural Heritage of Indonesia". In W. Nuryanti (ed.). Tourism and Heritage Management. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press. pp. 25–35.
  11. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Soekmono (1976), page 13.
  12. ^ Jump up to: a b Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817). The History of Java (1978 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580347-7.
  13. ^ Jump up to: a b J. L. Moens (1951). "Barabudur, Mendut en Pawon en hun onderlinge samenhang (Barabudur, Mendut and Pawon and their mutual relationship)" (PDF). Tijdschrift voor de Indische Taai-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen: 326–386. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2007. trans. by Mark Long
  14. ^ Jump up to: a b J.G. de Casparis, "The Dual Nature of Barabudur", in Gómez and Woodward (1981), page 70 and 83.
  15. ^ "Borobudur" (in Indonesian). Indonesian Embassy in Den Haag. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2014.