|Who were these god-kings?|
This list is an ancient manuscript originally recorded in the Sumerian language that lists the kings of Sumer (ancient Southern Iraq) from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of “official” kingship.
|Were the Annunaki (Asuras, Titans) giants?|
The first fragment of this rare and unique text -- a 4,000-year-old cuneiform tablet -- was found in the early 1900s by German-American scholar Hermann Hilprecht at the site of ancient Nippur and published in 1906.
Since Hilprecht’s discovery at least 18 other exemplars of the king’s list have been found, most of them dating from the second half of the Isin Dynasty (circa 2017-1794 BCE).
No two of these documents are identical. However, there is enough common material in all versions of the list to make it clear that they are derived from a single, “ideal” account of Sumerian history.
The 8-inch-high prism contains four sides with two columns on each side. It is believed that it originally had a wooden spindle going through its center so that it could be rotated and read on all four sides.
It lists rulers from the antediluvian (“before the flood”) dynasties to the fourteenth ruler of the Isin Dynasty (circa 1763-1753 BCE).
The list is of immense value because it reflects very old traditions while at the same time providing an important chronological framework relating to the different periods of kingship in Sumeria. It also demonstrates remarkable parallels to accounts in Genesis [of the Judeo-Christian Bible].
The ancient civilization of Sumer
Sumer (sometimes called Sumeria), is the site of the earliest known civilization.
It is/was located in the southernmost part of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, in the area that later became Babylonia and is now southern Iraq from around Baghdad to the Persian Gulf.
The Sumerian King List records that eight kings reigned before a great flood. After the Flood various city-states and their dynasties of kings temporarily gained power over the others.
Sumer’s mythical past
|Cuneiform Sumerian clay tablet writing|
- The Sumerian King List – University of Oxford
- Great Discoveries in Biblical Archaeology: The Sumerian King List – by Bryant G. Wood
- The Sumerian king list: translation – The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
- The Sumerian King List – by L.C.Geerts
- Reinvestigating the Antediluvian Sumerian King List – by R. K. Harrison
- The Sumerian King List – by Thorkild Jacobsen (The Oriental Institute of the University of California)