Scheme of Indo-European migrations from circa 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the Kurgan hypothesis. The purple area corresponds to the assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture). The red area corresponds to the area that may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to circa 2500 BCE; the orange area to 1000 BCE.
After this manner, scholars have tried to identify the homeland of the Proto-Indo-European language, to which the term Urheimat is most frequently applied. Possibly relevant geographical indicators are common words for "beech" and "salmon" (while there is no common word for "lion," e.g.—the fact so many European words for "lion" are similar-looking cognates is due to more recent borrowings). Many hypotheses for an Urheimat have been proposed, and Mallory (1989:143) said: “One does not ask ‘where is the Indo-European homeland?’ but rather ‘where do they put it now?’ ”
- Main article: Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses
- Ranajit Pal: A New Non-Jonesian History of the World
Patali near Jiroft was Pataliputra, capital of Chandragupta/Orontobates (ranajitpal.com)