|Finally, Fatso Griffin starts a yoga regimen...but does it while driving for Uber (Family Guy).|
|Om is the universal sound|
- Ahiṃsā (अहिंसा): nonviolence, non-harming other living beings.
- Satya (सत्य): truthfulness, non-falsehood.
- Asteya (अस्तेय): non-stealing.
- Brahmacārya (ब्रह्मचर्य): chastity, marital fidelity, or sexual restraint.
- Aparigraha (अपरिग्रहः): non-avarice, non-possessiveness, non-grabbing, non-hoarding.
2. Niyama (obligations)
- Śauca: purity, clearness of mind, speech, and body.
- Santoṣa: contentment, acceptance of others, acceptance of one's circumstances as they are in order to get past or change them, optimism for self.
- Tapas: persistence, perseverance, austerity.
- Svādhyāya: study of the Vedas, study of self, self-reflection, introspection of self's thoughts, speeches, and actions.
- Īśvarapraṇidhāna: contemplation of the Ishvara (GOD/Supreme Being, Brahman, True Self, Unchanging Reality).
3. Āsana (postures)
- Translation 1: an asana is what is steady and pleasant.
- Translation 2: motionless and agreeable form (of staying) is asana (yoga posture).
—Yoga Sutras II.46
Āraṇya translates Verse II.47 of The Yoga Sutras as, "asanas are perfected over time by relaxation of effort with meditation on the infinite"; this combination and practice stops the quivering of body. The posture that causes pain or restlessness is not a yogic posture. Other secondary texts studying Patanjali's sutra state that one requirement of correct posture is to keep breast, neck, and head erect (proper spinal posture).
Later yoga school scholars developed, described, and commented on numerous postures. Vyasa, for example, in his bhasya (commentary) on Patanjali's treatise suggests 12:
- Padmasana (lotus pose)
- Veerasana (heroic)
- Bhadrasana (decent)
- Swastikasana (the mystical sign)
- Dandasana (staff)
- Sopasrayasana (supported)
- Paryankasana (bedstead),
- Krauncha-nishadasana (seated heron)
- Hastanishadasana (seated elephant)
- Ushtranishadasana (seated camel)
- Samasansthanasana (evenly balanced)
- Sthirasukhasana (any motionless posture that is in accordance with one's pleasure).
- Padmasana (lotus)
- Bhadrasana (decent)
- Sinhasana (lion), and
- Siddhasana (accomplished).
After a desired posture has been achieved, Verses II.49 through II.51 recommend the next limb of yoga, prāṇāyāma, which is the practice of consciously regulating breath (inhalation and exhalation).
5. Pratyāhāra (collectedness)
Pratyahara is fetching and bringing near one's awareness and one's thoughts to within. It is a process of withdrawing one's thoughts from external objects, things, person, situation. It is turning one's attention to one's true Self, one's inner world, experiencing and examining self.
Pratyahara marks the transition of yoga experience from first four limbs that perfect external forms to last three limbs that perfect inner state, from outside to inside, from outer sphere of body to inner sphere of spirit.
6. Dhāraṇā (concentration)
Dharana as the sixth limb of yoga is holding one's mind onto a particular inner state, subject, or topic of one's mind. The mind (not sensory organ) is fixed on a mantra ["thought instrument"], or one's breath/navel/tip of tongue/any place, or an object one wants to observe, or a concept/idea in one's mind. Fixing the mind means one-pointed focus, without drifting of mind, and without discursively jumping from one topic to another.
7. Dhyāna (contemplation)
Dhyana is contemplating, reflecting on whatever dharana has focused on. If in the sixth limb of yoga one focused on a personal deity, dhyana is its contemplation.
|Shiva dances with Shakti in the Himalayas (SS)|
8. Samādhi (absorption)
Samadhi is oneness with the subject of meditation. There is no distinction, during the eighth limb of yoga, between the actor of meditation, the act of meditation, and the subject of meditation.