|The Buddha, Afghanistan, Indo-Greco Gandhara art, Bactria (Boonlieng/flickr.com)|
|The Buddha's final nirvana, Scythian-Gandhara art, stone relief (wiki)|
|The Buddha's family, the Shakyas, were the Sakkas of Sakastan, the Indo-Scythians of Central Asia, the Sakae of the north. His family was a successful tribe around Afghanistan (WQ).|
|Maitreya will be a Scythian|
[One of] their capital[s] was Kapilavatthu [along the Himalayan foothills, not under Everest in Nepal but to the west in the Hindu Kush, closer to K2. In ancient times, the entire range was referred to as the Himavanta.]
|Buddha, Gandhara (Durham Museum)|
|Shakyans were rich: gold Bimaran Casket for the Buddha's relics (British Museum/wiki)|
When their former Prince Siddhartha, now "the Buddha" after his enlightenment, first visited them, they refused to honor him on account of his youth (35). The Buddha then performed a marvel and taught them the Vessantara Jātaka, and thereby subdued their pride.
|Ven. Nagasena, King Menander I, Bactria|
|Modern loya jirga, Afghanistan (AP/BBC)|
- The ancient "Aryan" (Iranian) ruling tribes, who are hypothesized to have spoken Proto-Indo-Iranian, came down in intermittent waves from Central Asia and Afghanistan. They practiced a sort of jirga-system with two types of councils -- simite and sabhā. The simite (summit) comprised elders and tribal chiefs. The ruler (elected leader) also joined sessions of the simite. Sabhā was a sort of rural council. It was used over time for the selection of rulers and headmen and the airing of matters of principle. From the time of the great Kushan ruler Kanishka to the 1970s, there were sixteen national loya jirgas and hundreds of smaller ones. The institution, which is centuries old, is a similar idea to the Islamic "shura," or consultative assembly (BBC).