|The Buddha and the first Five Disciples (Firstfire53/charwoodland/flickr.com)|
|Siddhartha and the Five Ascetics (DW)|
Religion is a foolish aberration, a mental disease. There was a distrust of everything good, high, pure, and compassionate. Their theory stands for hedonism, sensuality, and selfishness and the gross affirmation of the loud self will. There is no need to control passion and instinct, since they are Nature's legacy to humans.
|Dhyani Buddhas, Akshobhya (V)|
|Gandhara Buddhist sutras (gardendigest.com)|
The Middle Way
- non-attachment or renunciation (nekkhamma-sankappa),
- loving-kindness (avyapada sankappa), and
- non-harming (avihimsa sankappa), which respectively are opposed to selfishness, ill will, and cruelty.
It is introvert, not extrovert. Whether a buddha, a supremely enlightened teacher, arises or not these truths exist. And one is called a "buddha" because one reveals them to the deluded world stuck in the dark.
These ennobling -- that is, leading onward to noble states of enlightenment -- do not change with time. They are eternal truths. The Buddha is not indebted to any teacher or existing teaching for the realization of them, as he explains in the discourse: "With regard to things unheard before, there arose in me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight, and the light." Light arose, knowledge arose.
|Diskit, Nubra, Himalayas (Atamvir S. Multani)|
This claim is very significant because it testifies to the originality of the Buddha Dharma, this new teaching. There is no justification in the statement that Buddhism is a natural outgrowth of Hinduism, which had not even come into existence yet (its predecessor Brahmanism and Vedantic teachings being the established religion of the temple priests of the time). But, of course, there are some fundamental doctrines common to both systems and to other dharmas being taught by various teachers at that time. (These other teachers are often referred to as "heretical teachers," which is misleading because they were not Buddhists nor Brahmins but other independent "wandering ascetic" teachers, part of what is called the shramana movement).
Many set out in search of "enlightenment," rejecting the Vedas and the temple priests, teaching their own insights. Six of these are used to illustrate various types of views. A more detailed list of the views floating around in the Buddha's day, are ennumerated in the Brahmajala Sutra, the "All-Embracing Net of Views." Of these "wandering ascetic" traditions, only Buddhism and Jainism survive, and the priestly temple religion of the Brahmins, who worshipped Brahma and/or idealized Brahman as the highest and ultimate truth. Brahmanism was revived, and Adi Shankara's formalization of disparate beliefs and principles came to be called Hinduism or the collective views of the Indus, called Hindus by the British.
|I don't mind you being rich (Occupy).|
As a feeling or sensation, dukkha means that which is difficult to be endured. As an abstract truth dukkha is used in the sense of contemptible (du) emptiness (kha). The world rests on suffering -- so it is contemptible. It is devoid of any reality -- so it is impersonal or empty. Dukkha, therefore, means "unsatisfactory void." [The Three Marks of Existence are the characteristics of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and impersonal, and all composite-things are marked by these three.]
If things are suffering, one finds it easy to let go. The vision, the knowing-and-seeing, the right view that they are unsatsifactory and utterly incapable of satisfying leads one not to chase, yearn, or pine after them, at least not with the view that they could actually bring real satisfaction or fulfillment.
Drugs, sex, pleasure
|Japan's sex industry (lamy/telegraph.co.uk)|
For example, if heroin is so great, and it must be to see the way addicts think of it day and night and do so much to get it, giving up health and liberty along the way, why would one need it a second time? It did not satisfy, it did not fulfill, it did not lead to the end of craving-and-suffering. It gave rise to such a fierce craving and so much suffering that unless one has it, one simply cannot live.
|Disney is a source of our sex mania.|
However, one's cherished desires, whether base or lofty, are not gratified. At times what one least expects or what one least desires is thrust upon one. Such unexpected and unpleasant circumstances become so intolerable and painful that weak ignorant people are compelled to commit suicide as if such an act would solve the problem.
There is no doubt some momentary happiness in the anticipation, gratification, and retrospection of such fleeting pleasures, although they are illusory, temporary, and misleading. According to the Buddha non-attachment (viragata) or the transcending of sensory pleasures is a greater bliss.
|Glen Quagmire craves sensual pleasure.|
- The first is the grossest form of craving, which is an addiction or attachment to all kinds of sensual pleasures (kama-tanha).
- The second is attachment to rebirth, again becoming, rearising, a continued wandering on, to eternal life (bhava-tanha).
- The third is attachment to non-existence (vibhava-tanha).
Attachment or clinging to renewed existence, bhava-tanha, may also be interpreted as attachment to rebirth in Realms of Form whether Sensual or Fine-Material (Kama and Rupa Lokas) and non-existence as attachment to Realms Beyond Form in the Formless Sphere because form-desire (rupa-raga) and formless-desire (arupa-raga) are treated as two fetters (samyojanas).
|Buddhist cosmology depicted in the Buddhist Museum, Bangkok, Thailand (uwebkk/flickr)|
"And there arose in me this knowledge and insight: Unshakable is this deliverance of mind, this is my last rebirth, and now there is no more becoming."