|Naked ascetic (bridgemanart.com)|
|Wandering Buddhist ascetics (Hermitianta)|
|Sadhu in the holy city of Haridwar, India|
- From ignorance as a condition come formations.
- From formations as a condition comes consciousness.
- From consciousness as a condition comes mind and body.
- From mind and body as a condition come the six sense bases.
- From the six sense bases as a condition comes contact.
- From contact as a condition comes feeling.
- From feeling as a condition comes craving.
- From craving as a condition comes clinging.
- From clinging as a condition comes becoming.
- From becoming as a condition comes birth.
- From birth as a condition comes [dukkha, which is defined as] aging and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair. Such is the origination of this entire mass of suffering.
- ALTERNATIVE TRANSLATION: “'He who performs the act also experiences [the result]' -- what you, Kassapa, first called 'suffering caused by oneself' -- this amounts to the Eternalist theory. 'One person performs the act yet another experiences [the result]' -- which to the person affected seems like 'suffering caused by another' -- this amounts to the Annihilationist theory. Avoiding both extremes, Kassapa, the Tathagata teaches a doctrine of the middle: Conditioned by ignorance are the (karma-) formations... [as SN 12.15]... so there comes about the cessation of this entire mass of suffering.” (Walshe)
|Real sadhus doing tapas (adolphus.nl)|
“Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent! It is just as if one were to set upright what had been overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark.
“In the same way the Blessed One -- through many lines of reasoning -- has made the Dharma clear.
“I go to the Blessed One for guidance and to the Dharma and to the Sangha. Let me obtain the going forth [become a monastic disciple] in the Blessed One’s presence. Let me obtain admission.”
“Anyone, Kassapa, who has previously belonged to another sect and who desires the going forth and admission in this Dharma (doctrine) and discipline, must first undergo a probationary period of four months. If at the end of four months the Sangha feels so moved, they may give one the going forth and admission. But I know distinctions among individuals in this matter.”
“Venerable sir, if that is so, I am willing to undergo a probationary period of four years. If at the end of four years the Sangha feels so moved, let them give me the going forth and admission.”
Then Kassapa the naked ascetic went forth in the Blessed One’s presence and obtained admission. Then in no long time -- dwelling withdrawn, secluded, heedful, ardent, and resolute -- he reached and remained in the ultimate goal of the supreme life -- for which [spiritual] warriors rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing and realizing the Truth for themselves here and now. Kassapa knew:
“Birth is ended, the supreme life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world.” Thus Ven. Kassapa became another one of the enlightened beings (arhats).”